(a) Nonrecognition of gain or loss from exchanges solely in kind
(1) In general
No gain or loss shall be recognized on the exchange of property held for productive use in a trade or business or for investment if such property is exchanged solely for property of like kind which is to be held either for productive use in a trade or business or for investment.
This subsection shall not apply to any exchange of-
(A) stock in trade or other property held primarily for sale,
(B) stocks, bonds, or notes,
(C) other securities or evidences of indebtedness or interest,
(D) interests in a partnership,
(E) certificates of trust or beneficial interests, or
(F) choses in action.
For purposes of this section, an interest in a partnership which has in effect a valid election under section 761(a) to be excluded from the application of all of subchapter K shall be treated as an interest in each of the assets of such partnership and not as an interest in a partnership.
(3) Requirement that property be identified and that exchange be completed not more than 180 days after transfer of exchanged property
For purposes of this subsection, any property received by the taxpayer shall be treated as property which is not like-kind property if-
(A) such property is not identified as property to be received in the exchange on or before the day which is 45 days after the date on which the taxpayer transfers the property relinquished in the exchange, or
(B) such property is received after the earlier of-
(i) the day which is 180 days after the date on which the taxpayer transfers the property relinquished in the exchange, or
(ii) the due date (determined with regard to extension) for the transferor's return of the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year in which the transfer of the relinquished property occurs.
(b) Gain from exchanges not solely in kind
If an exchange would be within the provisions of subsection (a), of section 1035(a), of section 1036(a), or of section 1037(a), if it were not for the fact that the property received in exchange consists not only of property permitted by such provisions to be received without the recognition of gain, but also of other property or money, then the gain, if any, to the recipient shall be recognized, but in an amount not in excess of the sum of such money and the fair market value of such other property.
(c) Loss from exchanges not solely in kind
If an exchange would be within the provisions of subsection (a), of section 1035(a), of section 1036(a), or of section 1037(a), if it were not for the fact that the property received in exchange consists not only of property permitted by such provisions to be received without the recognition of gain or loss, but also of other property or money, then no loss from the exchange shall be recognized.
If property was acquired on an exchange described in this section, section 1035(a), section 1036(a), or section 1037(a), then the basis shall be the same as that of the property exchanged, decreased in the amount of any money received by the taxpayer and increased in the amount of gain or decreased in the amount of loss to the taxpayer that was recognized on such exchange. If the property so acquired consisted in part of the type of property permitted by this section, section 1035(a), section 1036(a), or section 1037(a), to be received without the recognition of gain or loss, and in part of other property, the basis provided in this subsection shall be allocated between the properties (other than money) received, and for the purpose of the allocation there shall be assigned to such other property an amount equivalent to its fair market value at the date of the exchange. For purposes of this section, section 1035(a), and section 1036(a), where as part of the consideration to the taxpayer another party to the exchange assumed (as determined under section 357(d)) a liability of the taxpayer, such assumption shall be considered as money received by the taxpayer on the exchange.
(e) Exchanges of livestock of different sexes
For purposes of this section, livestock of different sexes are not property of a like kind.
(f) Special rules for exchanges between related persons
(1) In general
(A) a taxpayer exchanges property with a related person,
(B) there is nonrecognition of gain or loss to the taxpayer under this section with respect to the exchange of such property (determined without regard to this subsection), and
(C) before the date 2 years after the date of the last transfer which was part of such exchange-
(i) the related person disposes of such property, or
(ii) the taxpayer disposes of the property received in the exchange from the related person which was of like kind to the property transferred by the taxpayer,
there shall be no nonrecognition of gain or loss under this section to the taxpayer with respect to such exchange; except that any gain or loss recognized by the taxpayer by reason of this subsection shall be taken into account as of the date on which the disposition referred to in subparagraph (C) occurs.
(2) Certain dispositions not taken into account
For purposes of paragraph (1)(C), there shall not be taken into account any disposition-
(A) after the earlier of the death of the taxpayer or the death of the related person,
(B) in a compulsory or involuntary conversion (within the meaning of section 1033) if the exchange occurred before the threat or imminence of such conversion, or
(C) with respect to which it is established to the satisfaction of the Secretary that neither the exchange nor such disposition had as one of its principal purposes the avoidance of Federal income tax.
(3) Related person
For purposes of this subsection, the term “related person” means any person bearing a relationship to the taxpayer described in section 267(b) or 707(b)(1).
(4) Treatment of certain transactions
This section shall not apply to any exchange which is part of a transaction (or series of transactions) structured to avoid the purposes of this subsection.
(g) Special rule where substantial diminution of risk
(1) In general
If paragraph (2) applies to any property for any period, the running of the period set forth in subsection (f)(1)(C) with respect to such property shall be suspended during such period.
(2) Property to which subsection applies
This paragraph shall apply to any property for any period during which the holder's risk of loss with respect to the property is substantially diminished by-
(A) the holding of a put with respect to such property,
(B) the holding by another person of a right to acquire such property, or
(C) a short sale or any other transaction.
(h) Special rules for foreign real and personal property
For purposes of this section-
(1) Real property
Real property located in the United States and real property located outside the United States are not property of a like kind.
(2) Personal property
(A) In general
Personal property used predominantly within the United States and personal property used predominantly outside the United States are not property of a like kind.
(B) Predominant use
Except as provided in subparagraphs (C) and (D), the predominant use of any property shall be determined based on-
(i) in the case of the property relinquished in the exchange, the 2-year period ending on the date of such relinquishment, and
(ii) in the case of the property acquired in the exchange, the 2-year period beginning on the date of such acquisition.
(C) Property held for less than 2 years
Except in the case of an exchange which is part of a transaction (or series of transactions) structured to avoid the purposes of this subsection-
(i) only the periods the property was held by the person relinquishing the property (or any related person) shall be taken into account under subparagraph (B)(i), and
(ii) only the periods the property was held by the person acquiring the property (or any related person) shall be taken into account under subparagraph (B)(ii).
(D) Special rule for certain property
Property described in any subparagraph of section 168(g)(4) shall be treated as used predominantly in the United States.
(i) Special rules for mutual ditch, reservoir, or irrigation company stock
For purposes of subsection (a)(2)(B), the term “stocks” shall not include shares in a mutual ditch, reservoir, or irrigation company if at the time of the exchange-
(1) the mutual ditch, reservoir, or irrigation company is an organization described in section 501(c)(12)(A) (determined without regard to the percentage of its income that is collected from its members for the purpose of meeting losses and expenses), and
(2) the shares in such company have been recognized by the highest court of the State in which such company was organized or by applicable State statute as constituting or representing real property or an interest in real property.
(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736,
1989-Subsecs. (f) to (h).
1959-Subsecs. (b) to (d).
Effective Date of 2008 Amendment
Amendment of this section and repeal of
Effective Date of 1999 Amendment
Effective Date of 1997 Amendment
“(A) it provides for a sale in lieu of an exchange, or
“(B) the property to be acquired as replacement property was not identified under such contract before June 9, 1997.”
Effective Date of 1990 Amendment
Effective Date of 1989 Amendment
Effective Date of 1986 Amendment
Effective Date of 1984 Amendment
“(A) to transfers after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984], and
“(B) to transfers on or before such date of enactment if the property to be received in the exchange is not received before January 1, 1987.
In the case of any transfer on or before the date of the enactment of this Act which the taxpayer treated as part of a like-kind exchange, the period for assessing any deficiency of tax attributable to the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall not expire before January 1, 1988.
“(A) by substituting ‘January 1, 1989’ for ‘January 1, 1987’, and
“(B) by substituting ‘January 1, 1990’ for ‘January 1, 1988’.
Effective Date of 1969 Amendment
Effective Date of 1959 Amendment
Effective Date of 1958 Amendment
Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989
For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of